FREDERICK G. HOLWECK
This article is reprinted here with the kind permission of Kevin Knight, who has undertaken a project to transcribe an online version of the 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia.
In the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 8 December 1854, Pius IX pronounced and defined that the Blessed Virgin Mary "in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved exempt from all stain of sin."
"The Blessed Virgin Mary ... "
The subject of this immunity from original sin is the person of Mary at the moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into her body.
"...in the first instance of her conception..."
The term conception does not mean the active or
generative conception by her parents.
Her body was formed in the womb of the mother, and the father had the usual share in its formation.
The question does not concern the immaculateness of the generative activity of her parents.
Neither does it concern the passive conception absolutely and simply (conceptio seminis carnis, inchoata), which, according to the order of nature, precedes the infusion of the rational soul.
The person is truly conceived when the soul is created and infused into the body.
Mary was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin at the first moment of her animation, and sanctifying grace was given to her before sin could have taken effect in her soul.
"...was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin..."
The formal active essence of original sin was not removed from her soul, as it is removed from others by baptism; it was excluded, it never was simultaneously with the exclusion of sin.
The state of original sanctity, innocence, and justice, as opposed to original sin, was conferred upon her, by which gift every stain and fault, all depraved emotions, passions, and debilities, essentially pertaining in her soul to original sin, were excluded. But she was not made exempt from the temporal penalties of Adam -- from sorrow, bodily infirmities, and death.
"...by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race. "
The immunity from original sin was given to Mary by a singular exemption from a universal law through the same merits of Christ, by which other men are cleansed
from sin by baptism.
Mary needed the redeeming Saviour to obtain this exemption, and to be delivered
from the universal necessity and debt (debitum) of being subject to original sin.
The person of Mary, in consequence of her origin from Adam, should have been subject to sin, but, being the new Eve who was to be the mother of the new Adam, she was, by the eternal counsel of God and by the merits of Christ, withdrawn from the general law of original sin.
Her redemption was the very masterpiece of Christ's redeeming wisdom.
He is a greater redeemer who pays the debt that it may not be incurred than he who pays after it has fallen on the debtor.
Such is the meaning of the term "Immaculate Conception."
Proof from Scripture
No direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought
forward from Scripture.
But the first scriptural passage which contains the promise of the redemption,
mentions also the Mother of the Redeemer.
The sentence against the first parents was accompanied by the Earliest Gospel (Proto-evangelium), which put enmity between the serpent and the woman: "and I will put enmity between thee and the woman and her seed; she (he) shall crush thy head and thou shalt lie in wait for her (his) heel" (Genesis 3:15).
The translation "she" of the Vulgate is interpretative; it originated after the fourth century, and cannot be defended critically.
The conqueror from the seed of the woman, who should crush the serpent's head, is Christ; the woman at enmity with the serpent is Mary.
God puts enmity between her and Satan in the same manner and measure, as there is enmity between Christ and the seed of the serpent.
Mary was ever to be in that exalted state of soul which the serpent had destroyed in man, i.e. in sanctifying grace.
Only the continual union of Mary with grace explains sufficiently the enmity between her and Satan.
The Proto-evangelium, therefore, in the original text contains a direct promise
of the Redeemer; and in conjunction therewith the manifestation of the masterpiece of His Redemption, the perfect preservation of His virginal Mother from original sin.
The salutation of the angel Gabriel -- chaire kecharitomene, Hail, full of grace (Luke 1:28) indicates a unique abundance of grace, a supernatural,
godlike state of soul, which finds its explanation only in the Immaculate Conception of Mary.
But the term kecharitomene (full of grace) serves only as an illustration, not as a proof of the dogma.
From the texts Proverbs 8 and Ecclesiasticus 24 (which exalt the Wisdom of God and which in the liturgy are applied to Mary, the most beautiful work of God's Wisdom), or from the Canticle of Canticles (4:7, "Thou art all fair, O my love, and there is not a spot in thee"), no theological conclusion can be drawn.
These passages, applied to the Mother of God, may be readily understood by those
who know the privilege of Mary, but do not avail to prove the doctrine dogmatically, and are therefore omitted from the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus.
For the theologian it is a matter of conscience not to take an extreme position by applying to a creature texts which might imply the prerogatives of God.