by John J. Wynne
This article is reprinted here with the kind permission of Kevin Knight, who has undertaken a project to transcribe an online version of the 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia.
While this article is taken from a volume written well before the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council, it is still relevant from an historical perspective, allowing us to study the history of our celebrating the Ascension.
The celebration now ranks as a solemnity, it no longer has a vigil or octave, and the Paschal Candle is not extinguished after the Gospel of the Ascension, but remains lit through Pentecost.
Many dioceses in the United States now tranfer the celebration of the Ascension to the Seventh Sunday of Easter.
I. The Event
The elevation of Christ into heaven by His own power in the presence of His disciples the fortieth day after His Resurrection.
It is narrated in Mark 16:19, Luke 24:51, and in the first chapter of the Acts of the Apostles.
Although the place of the Ascension is not distinctly stated, it would appear from the Acts that it was Mount Olivet.
Since after the Ascension the disciples are described as returning to Jerusalem from the mount that is called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, within a Sabbath day's journey, tradition has consecrated this site as the Mount of Ascension and Christian piety has memorialized the event by erecting over the site a basilica.
Saint Helena built the first memorial, which was destroyed by the Persians in 614, rebuilt in the eighth century, to be destroyed again, but rebuilt a second time by the
This the Moslems also destroyed, leaving only the octagonal structure which encloses the stone said to bear the imprint of the feet of Christ, that is now used as an oratory.
Not only is the fact of the Ascension related in the passages of Scripture cited above, but it is also elsewhere predicted and spoken of as an established fact.
Thus, in John 6:63, Christ asks the Jews: "If then you shall see the son of Man ascend up where He was before?" and 20:17, He says to Mary Magdalen: "Do not touch Me, for I am not yet ascended to My Father, but go to My brethren, and say to them: I ascend to My Father and to your Father, to My God and to your God."
Again, in Ephesians 4:8-10, and in Timothy 3:16, the Ascension of Christ is spoken of as an accepted fact.
The language used by the Evangelists to describe the Ascension must be interpreted according to usage.
To say that He was taken up or that He ascended, does not necessarily imply that they locate heaven directly above the earth; no more than the words "sitteth on the right hand of God" mean that this is His actual posture.
In disappearing from their view "He was raised up and a cloud received Him out of their sight" (Acts 1:9), and entering into glory He dwells with the Father in the honour
and power denoted by the scripture phrase.
II. The Feast
The fortieth day after Easter Sunday, commemorating the Ascension of Christ into heaven, according to Mark 16:19, Luke 24:51, and Acts 1:2.
In the Eastern Church this feast was known as analepsis, the taking up, and also as the episozomene, the salvation, denoting that by ascending into His
glory Christ completed the work of our redemption.
The terms used in the West, ascensio and, occasionally, ascensa, signify that Christ was raised up by His own powers.
Tradition designates Mount Olivet near Bethany as the place where Christ left the earth.
The feast falls on Thursday.
It is one of the Ecumenical feasts ranking with the feasts of the Passion, of Easter and of Pentecost among the most solemn in the calendar, has a
vigil and, since the fifteenth century, an octave which is set apart for a novena Pentecost, in accordance with the directions of Leo XIII.
The observance of this feast is of great antiquity.
Although no documentary evidence of it exists prior to the beginning of the fifth century, Saint Augustine says that it is of Apostolic origin, and he speaks of it in a way that shows it was the universal observance of the Church long before his time.
Frequent mention of it is made in the writings of Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Gregory of Nyssa, and in the Constitution of the Apostles.
The Pilgrimage of Sylvia (Peregrinatio Etheriae) speaks of the vigil of this feast and of the feast itself, as they were kept in the church built over the grotto in
Bethlehem in which Christ was born (Duchesne, Christian Worship, 491-515).
It may be that prior to the fifth century the fact narrated in the Gospels was commemorated in conjunction with the feast of Easter or Pentecost.
Some believe that the much-disputed forty-third decree of the Council of Elvira (c. 300) condemning the practice of observing a feast on the fortieth day after Easter and neglecting to keep Pentecost on the fiftieth day, implies that the proper usage of the time was to commemorate the Ascension along with Pentecost.
Representations of the mystery are found in diptychs and frescoes dating as early as the fifth century.
Certain customs were connected with the liturgy of this feast, such as the blessing of beans and grapes after the Commemoration of the Dead in the Canon of the Mass, the
blessing of first fruits, afterwards done on Rogation Days, the blessing of a candle, the wearing of mitres by deacon and subdeacon, the extinction of the paschal candle, and
triumphal processions with torches and banners outside the churches to commemorate the entry of Christ into heaven.
Rock records the English custom of carrying at the head of the procession the banner bearing the device of the lion and at the foot the banner of the dragon, to symbolize the triumph of Christ in His ascension over the evil one.
In some churches the scene of the Ascension was vividly reproduced by elevating the figure of Christ above the altar through an opening in the roof of the church.
In others, whilst the figure of Christ was made to ascend, that of the devil was made to descend.
In the liturgies generally the day is meant to celebrate the completion of the work of our salvation, the pledge of our glorification with Christ, and His entry into heaven with our human nature glorified.
DUCHESNE, Christian Worship (London, 1904); NILLES Kalendarium Utriusque Ecclesiae (Innsbruck, 1897), II. 362-374; CABROL, in Dict. d'arch. chrét. et liturg. BUTLER, Feasts and Fasts; GUÉRANGER, III, s. v.
JOHN J. WYNNE
Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas and by the Cloistered Dominican Nuns of the Monastery of the Infant Jesus, Lufkin, Texas
Dedicated to Christ the King
See New Advent Catholic Website
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I
Copyright © 1911 by Robert Appleton Company
Online Edition Copyright © 1999 by Kevin Knight
Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor
Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York
Reprinted by permission of copyright owner.
See also CNP's Liturgical Information for Ascension
and CNP's Music Suggestions for Ascension